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cm ^f STITCHES 
IN TIME 

AN EXHIBITION 

OF EMBROIDERIES AND 

NEEDLEWORK TECHNIOUES 

January 28th through April 12th 
1947 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

COOPER SQUARE, NEW YORK 



STITCHES IN TIME 



Notes on the Art of Embroidery 

Embroidery is one of the arts of decoration. And embroidery, like 
carving, printing, enamelling or any other technique, has its own 
distinctive possibilities and characteristics. The pieces assembled 
in this exhibition, dating from the sixth century to this season of 1946- 
1947, have been brought together to show the essential qualities of 
embroidery, to enrich the artistic experience of visitors by examples that 
are of beautiful design and workmanship, and to offer to the creative 
talent of today suggestions which might otherwise be overlooked. 

The definition of embroidery establishes two facts: first, that it is 
accomplished by means of a thread, generally carried in a needle (but 
the term thread may be broadly interpreted, as will be seen) and sec- 
ondly, that the work is done on a finished foundation. This distinguishes 
embroidery from brocading, with which it is sometimes confused, because 
brocading is part of the process of weaving. 

The foundation fabrics and threads most used by embroiderers are, 
and always have been, of silk, wool, cotton or linen, with gold and silver, 
pearls or semi-precious stones for enrichment. The Museum displays, as 
part of its permanent exhibit, an altar frontal from sixteenth-century 
Spain, of red velvet embroidered in colored silk, threads of gold and small 
garnets. But leather, birch-bark, or straw-work may receive embroidery, 
and human hair, thongs of leather or of wood fibre, raffia, or porcupine 
quills may be used as thread. And beads, beetle wings, shells, and other 
substances may be sewed on to the fabric and become part of the em- 
broidery. It is interesting to note that basketry of the coiled type is often 
sewed with buttonhole, chain and other stitches. 

m 




One of the characteristics of embroidery is that it permits of more 
freedom of design than do weaving or printing (other important forms 
of textile decoration ) , for the design need not come in repeats, even when 
based on counted threads. Other characteristics are that the embroidery 
thread, in forming the stitches, provides a new texture on the ground 
weave and that, in so doing, it takes away from the flatness of the cloth. 
The relief may be very slight, as when a fine silk thread is used, or it may 
be quite high, as in stumpwork. 

Then there are endless possibilities for artistic selections in the relation- 
ship between the embroidery thread and the ground cloth. They may be 
of contrasting, or the same, color; of contrasting, or the same, material 
( some people think that silk on linen is the most attractive, others hold for 
wool on cotton, and others for silk on silk ) ; or they may be of contrasting, 
or the same, quality ( the linen on linen of the cottage or the rich gold on 
silk of the Church or Court ) . 

The skill of the embroiderer is shown in the needlework. Stitches must 
be carefully made and exactly placed, each one similar to the others in 
every detail and a uniform tension of thread kept throughout. One stitch 
made more loosely than the others will spoil the effect of that part of the 
work. In fact, carelessness is no more to be tolerated here than in the 
workshop of the jeweler, or any other craftsman. 

When embroidery was an accepted means of expression, men and 
women both, of high and low estate, were owners of embroidery and 
often needleworkers themselves — the men specializing, it is said, in gold 
work. By needles and thread, no less than by chisels and hammers, or by 
brushes and paints, were ideas given form. 

It is possible to increase one's knowledge of the fives, activities and 
even the thoughts of the people of preceding centuries by a study of 
needlework because it was executed in the designs and stitches that 
appealed at the time of its making. Looking back over history, it is seen 
that there are many periods in which embroidery has played a prominent 
part. Tombs in Egypt and excavation in pre-Christian sites in the Crimea 

4 



and in Asia have yielded needle-decorated fabrics among other treasures. 
It has been said that the earliest piece of embroidery to be definitely 
dated is the fragment of a garment taken from the tomb of Thotmose IV. 
It is tapestry with embroidery in twined stitch and dates from the six- 
teenth century B.C. In this exhibition are pieces from the Coptic period 
worked in counted running stitches ( 1 ) . * 

Yet comparatively few pieces remain that antedate the Arabic period. 
A little group of worn, but precious, fragments of Egypto-Arabic work, 
on permanent display in the Museum, show that buttonhole, matting, 
square, darning, double running, satin, chain, cross and split stitches 
— all in use today — were used then. In the following centuries, as the 
Islamic Empire spread across Africa and into Spain, during the Middle 
Ages, and when the Renaissance brought renewed artistic activity to 
Europe, even down to modern times, quantities of embroideries were 
made and important examples survive. Each country and each stratum 
of society has expressed itself with its own kind of embroidery, whether 
it was in the deeply religious life of mediaeval England, under the Moor- 
ish conquest of Spain, at the luxury-loving court of the eighteenth century 
in France, or in the nineteenth-century Balkans where designs and tech- 
niques show the influence of the Turkish invasion on Eastern Europe. 

The use of any of the decorative arts is affected by economic and social 
conditions and embroidery is no exception to this rule. Under eighteenth- 
century fashions, chairs might be covered entirely with crewel-work or 
canvas embroidery. Today, chair seats are sometimes done in petit point, 
or a cushion will have a small square of canvas work in the center. In 
general, hand-embroidery is now considered too expensive for upholstery, 
though its superior durability should commend it for this purpose. 

Clothing is not heavily hand-embroidered like the garments made by 
the European peasants of the last century, when time was plentiful and 
woven materials scarce; but in the ready-made clothing of today, when 
materials are normally plentiful and beautiful and free time is scarce, 

" Numbers set in parentheses refer to numbered examples in the exhibition. 

5 



color and texture-decoration are achieved by mechanical means which 
infrequently include embroidery of the traditional sort. 

A comparison of the amount and placing of embroidery on costume is 
an interesting and enlightening study. Consider the following examples: 
a magnificent dress of the mid-eighteenth century with handsome em- 
broidery on the overskirt, such as that shown in the design (2); a more 
simple dress with small embroidered motifs scattered over the fabric in 
a style that recalls the brocaded patterns of the time; the dresses of the 
early nineteenth century, of sheer material with skirts that were meant to 
hang straight and were, therefore, weighted down with embroidery, puff- 
ing, or other ornament placed at the hem (3); peasant costume with a 
great deal of needlework placed where it would show to best advantage; 
and lastly, the garments of today with embroidery used to emphasize the 
parts of the dress where interest centers ( 4 ) . 

There have always been several ways of achieving desired effects in 
embroidery and it is of interest to see the methods that are most in use 
in these practical days when the machine plays such an important part 
in needlework decoration. Two favored ways of producing areas of color 
were by satin stitch (5), and by the applying of one piece of fabric on 
another ( 6 ) ; today the applique method is the one most frequently used. 
Texture-interest, once achieved by an especially selected stitch, or by 
combining stitches of several types (7), is now supplied by sewed-on 
braids; and a cord, couched on, can form the thickened line that embroid- 
erers once worked in raised stitches (8). The list might be continued 
with openwork embroidery, once formed by drawing the fabric threads 
apart with a well-controlled embroidery thread (9), but now often 
formed by penetration of a large needle. Beads and spangles are as 
popular as ever. But, whereas examples of other centuries show beads 
sewed on by running stitches, beads are today attached by the chain stitch 
worked with a hook from the wrong side. Machines, operated by skillful 
hands, do quilting and chain stitch. And because of the excellent work 
done by clever operators, tucking, gathering and forms of fabric manipu- 

6 



lation are acquiring a decorative value which gives them a place similar 
to embroidery, and has even led to their being called embroidery. 

Costume, at present, shows little hand-embroidery of the type used in 
bygone centuries to ornament die clodiing of men, women and children, 
although details of needlework and well-executed finishings are marks of 
high-priced dressmaker's work. Our age has developed a new type of 
dress-embroidery and that it might have its deserved place in this exhibi- 
tion, examples have been borrowed from several New York firms. 

The differences in traditional and modern embroidery techniques have 
been pointed out. But in design there are similarities. Two pieces in the 
exhibition ( 10 and 11 ) are, in dieir patterns and use of color, reminiscent 
of beautiful work of the past. The first, a design carried out in bugle 
beads in soft colors, calls to mind old silk embroidery in satin stitch, the 
long beads being today's interpretation of the long stitch and the shading 
being similar. The second, also a flower pattern, is in small spangles 
which give much die effect of very fine cross-stitch. 

Those who work by mechanical means are finding that the rigid 
requirements of the machine and the high costs of production may be 
surmounted so that something with the charm and variety of old embroid- 
ery may be produced which is still in accord with the modern point of 
view. 

Hand-embroiderers, and there are many today doing excellent work, 
have discovered that theirs is no more difficult, no more time- or patience- 
consuming than any of die other arts and that there is definite pleasure 
in making designs for embroidery, in carrying out the designs in stitches 
on fabric — pleasure, too, in the handling of fine materials and embroidery 
threads. Sewing is a simple, practical way of ornamenting many objects 
of everyday use. The tools and materials are easily obtainable and suit- 
able for today's small homes. The work can be taken up and put down 
as other matters claim one's attention since no elaborate equipment, such 
as is needed for some of the other crafts, is required. 

Both the hand and the mechanical embroiderers, however, will find 

7 



amply demonstrated by the examples here displayed the essential require- 
ments of this art of decoration. There is valuable suggestion for alert 
minds in a study of the best work of any period, and the remarks given 
in the following section of this leaflet will perhaps help in presenting 
those qualities that have made embroidery an important art in the past. 

Arrangement of the Exhibition 

As the exhibition has been arranged there are two divisions; one pre- 
senting embroidery as an art and explaining the technique, and the other 
showing fine examples which have been grouped according to century 
and country of origin. 

In the technique section are shown the tools with which the embroid- 
erer works. Here are thimbles, scissors, winders for reeling silk thread, 
needle cases and pincushions; but, above all, it is the needle which holds 
the place of central importance. With it, embroidery, which is essen- 
tially the decoration of material by a thread, is best accomplished. The 
needle is a thoroughly functional tool, with its eye which carries the 
thread into the fabric, its sharp point to pierce the fabric and its smooth 
shaft growing larger so gradually that it enlarges the hole in the cloth by 
such gentle pressure that the threads spring back nearly into place after 
its passage. It is a tool perfectly adapted to its use and streamlined, too, 
for all that it is centuries old. Hand-made, and an object of great value 
in the Middle Ages, the needle was honored with a place in theological 
discussions by the learned doctors who asked, "How many angels can 
dance on the point of a needle?" 

Designs may be of many different kinds; geometric, floral, animal life, 
or of such unusual forms as angels, mermaids or centaurs ( 12 ) . 

The artist must choose the design with care. It must in itself be a good 
one and the principles which apply to all designing must be remembered. 
There must be good line, proportion and color, right scale, the best plac- 
ing and spacing of ornament with symmetry or asymmetry, crowding of 
detail, or spare use of decoration, as desired. Besides, the design must 

8 



be suitable to the object being ornamented. If the embroidery is to be 
used for decoration (not as an end in itself, as in the embroidered pic- 
ture), the relationship between the ornament and the object to be orna- 
mented must be borne in mind, and the design must be suitable to the 
object being ornamented. When this is forgotten and the technique is 
indulged in simply because it is a pleasant pastime, it no longer serves 
the true purpose of a decorative art. In the exhibition there are, besides 
some fragments, a certain number of whole pieces, so that the relation 
between ornament and object may be seen. 

Another important selection to be made is that of the stitches to be 
used in translating the design into embroidery. Because this is so very 
important, we have prepared large-scale samplers to demonstrate several 
stitches, their variations and the different effects to be obtained by using 
silk or wool, or a heavy or a light thread. It is an interesting fact that 
most of the stitches have been used in many parts of the world and that 
the popularity of individual stitches, as of many things, has risen and 
fallen at different periods. Or it might better be said, certain stitches 
were used at certain times because they expressed that period better 
than any other stitches would have done. For instance, split stitch, well 
adapted for depicting faces, and used so generally in mediaeval church 
embroidery, is found much less often in later work. And chain stitch, 
though known for a long time, comes into more widespread use in the 
floral designs of the eighteenth century. Samplers have been made for 
buttonhole, chain, satin, cross, running and twining stitches, and with 
each sampler is a short history of the stitch. This idea is more fully 
developed in the twenty-eight charts which are a part of the Museum's 
permanent embroidery collection. 

In this exhibition an effort has been made to bring together some of 
the best examples in the Museum collection with others of fine quality, 
lent for the occasion by generous friends, in order to provide the visitor 
the means of knowing the extent and excellence of the art of embroidery. 
The outstanding qualities of the embroideries have been emphasized by 

9 



labels. The early pieces from Coptic Egypt and Peru are followed by 
two cases of sixteenth-century work from Italy and Spain, then seven- 
teenth-century examples from Spain, England and Italy, three cases of 
eighteenth-century material and one of oriental embroidery, and nine- 
teenth-century work, including peasant productions, with modern pieces 
in the alcoves. As further indication of the Museum's resources in the 
field of embroidery, two table cases are installed with some of the original 
designs of earlier periods. A selection of books has been temporarily 
withdrawn from the Library to form part of the exhibition; and for per- 
manent reference, a bibliography is printed in the following pages. 

Elizabeth Haynes 



10 



SELECTED REFERENCES 

ii a 

In the Museum Library relating to the 
Design and Technique of Embroidery 



GENERAL 

Alford, Marian M. Needlework as art. 
London, Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle 
and Rivington, 1886. xxiii, 422 p., front., 
illus., plates. 25 cm. 

Antrobus, Mrs. Mary (Symonds). Needle- 
work through the ages, a short survey of 
its development in decorative art . . . 
London, Hodder & Stoughton, Ltd., 1928. 
xxxiii, 413 p., col. front., 103 plates (part 
col. ) 32 x 25 cm. 

Cole, Alan Summerly. Cantor lectures . . . 
London, W. Trounce, 1881-1895. 3 pam- 
phlets in 1 v. illus. 24K cm. (Contents: 
[1] On the art of lace making. [2] On 
the art of tapestry making and embroid- 
ery. [3] On means for verifying ancient 
embroideries and laces. ) 

The Embroiderers' Guild. Embroidery, 
v. 1, no. 1, December 1932 -v. 8, no. 2, 
June 1941. 

Errera, Isabelle. Collection de broderies 
anciennes. Bruxelles, J. E. Goossens, 1905. 
64 p., illus., 20 plates. 27& cm. 

Farcy, Louis de. La broderie du Xle siecle 
jusqu'a nos jours d'apres des specimens 
authentiques et les anciens inventaires. 
Angers, Belhomme, 1890. 2 v. plates. 55 
x 38 cm. 

Holme, Geoffrey. A book of old embroid- 
ery . . . London, New York [etc.] "The 
Studio," Ltd. 1921. 40 p., col. front., 87 
pi. ( 7 col. ) on 47 1. 29% cm. 

Huish, Marcus Bourne. Samplers & tapestry 
embroideries ... 2d ed. London, New 
York [etc.] Longmans, Green and co., 
1900. xiv, 176 p., illus., xxiv col. pi. (incl. 
front.) 25Kcm. 

Lefebure, Ernest. Broderie et dentelles . . . 
Paris, Maison Quantin [18S7]. 320 p., 
illus. 21K cm. 

Lotz, Arthur. Bibliographie der model- 
biicher . . . Leipzig, K. W. Hiersemann, 
1933. xii, 274 p., 108 pi. (inc. facsims.) 
on 54 1. 25 cm. 

Macquoid, Percy. The dictionary of Eng- 
lish furniture, from the middle ages to the 
late Georgian period, by Percy Macquoid 
& Ralph Edwards . . . London, Offices of 
Country Life; New York, C. Scribner's 
Sons, 1924-27. 3 v., fronts, (part col.) 
illus., col. plates. 41 cm. 

Needlework, p. 15-24, vol. 3. 



The Needle and Bobbin Club. Bulletin. 
v. 1, no. 1, December 1916, to date. 

Nouveaux choix de broderies anciennes des 
XVIe, Vile, & XVIIIe siecles. Paris, Cala- 
vas, n.d. 65 plates. 46 cm. 

Paris. Musee Galliera. Exposition du Mu- 
see Galliera, 1904; dentelles, guipures, 
broderies ajourees . . . Paris, Charles 
Schmid [1904?] [4] p., 36 plates. 46 cm. 

Seligman, G. Saville. Domestic needle- 
work, its origins and customs throughout 
the centuries . . . London, Country Life 
[etc.] [1926] 85 p., col. front., illus., 131 
plates ( part col. ) 37 x 28 cm. 

South Kensington Museum, London. . . . 
A descriptive catalogue of the collections 
of tapestry and embroidery in the South 
Kensington museum. London, printed by 
Eyre and Spottiswoode for H. M. Sta- 
tionery off., 1888. 432 p. 22K cm. 

South Kensington Museum, London. . . . 
Embroidery from the South Kensington 
museum. London, J. Tiranti, [189-?] xv 
pi. 48 cm. 

South Kensington Museum, London. A 
supplemental . . . catalogue of embroid- 
eries and tapestry-woven specimens ac- 
quired . . . between 1886 and June 1890. 
London, 1891. 48 p. 24% cm. 

South Kensington Museum, London. A 
supplemental . . . catalogue of embroid- 
eries and tapestry-woven specimens ac- 
quired . . . between July 1890 and 1894. 
London, 1896. 66 p. 24K cm. 

Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs. Les 
nouvelles collections de l'Union centrale 
des arts decoratifs. Palais du Louvre, Pa- 
vilion de Marsan. 7e serie, dentelles, gui- 
pures, broderies. Paris, Guerinet, n.d. 86 
plates. 30 cm. 

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond. 
The human story in needlework . . . Rich- 
mond, Va., Virginia museum of fine arts 
[1945]. 69 p., illus. 23 cm. 

Whiting, Gertrude. Tools and toys of 
stitchery . . . New York, Columbia univer- 
sity press, 1928. xiii, 357 p., front., illus. 
26 cm. 

TECHNIQUES 

Arthur, Anne Knox. An embroidery book. 
London, A. & C. Black, Ltd., 1920. xv, 
183 p., col. front., illus., plates (part col.) 
22K cm. 

11 



Brainerd & Armstrong Company. Em- 
broidery lessons with colored studies— 1901 
—latest and most complete book on the 
subject of silk embroidery and popular 
fancy work . . . New London, Conn., 
Brainerd & Armstrong, 1900. 135 p., illus., 
col. plates. 19/2 cm. 

Caulfeild, S. F. A. .. .The dictionary of 
needlework, an encyclopaedia of artistic, 
plain, and fancy needlework ... 2d ed. 
London, L. Upcott Gill [1885]. 528 p., 
illus. 28 cm. 

Christie, Grace (Mrs. A. H. Christie). 
Embroidery and tapestry weaving; a prac- 
tical textbook of design and workmanship. 
London, J. Hogg, 1906. 3 p. 1., xi-xxiii p., 
1 1., 27-414 p. incl. front., illus., plates. 
19 cm. 

Christie, Grace (Mrs. A. H. Christie). 
Samplers and stitches; a handbook of the 
embroiderer's art. 2d ed., rev. and enl. 
London, B. T. Batsford, Ltd.; New York, 
E. P. Dutton & company [1929]. xvi, 144 
p., illus., xxxiv (i.e. 38) pi. (incl. col. 
front. ) 25/2 cm. 

Crompton, Rebecca. Modern design in em- 
broidery. New York, Chas. Scribner's sons 
[1936]. viii, 72 p., col. front., 84 illus., 
51 pi. 25 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Encyclopedia of 
needlework. Mulhouse (Alsace). Printed 
by Brustlein & co., n.d. 789 p., illus., col. 
pi. 14 cm. 

Harrison, Constance (Cary) (Mrs. Bur- 
ton Harrison). Woman's handiwork in 
modern homes. [New York], C. Scribner's 
sons, 1881. xii, 242 p., plates (part col., 
incl. front, port). 21 cm. 

Hogarth, Mary. Modern embroidery. Gar- 
den City, N. Y., Garden City publishing 
co., inc. [c.1938]. 128 p., illus., col. plates. 
28K cm. 

Jones, Mrs. C. S. Household elegancies; 
suggestions in household art and tasteful 
home decorations . . . New York, H. T. 
Williams, 1875. 300 p., illus. 2VA cm. 

Lambert, Miss. The handbook of needle- 
work. New York, Wiley & Putnam, 1842. 
xv, 263 p., illus. 22K cm. 

Leslie, Frank. Frank Leslie's portfolio of 
fancy needlework . . . [n.p., 1854?] 100 
p., illus., plates. 35 cm. 

Netto. L'art de tricoter, developpe dans 
toute son etendue . . . Leipzig, Chez Voss 
et compagnie, 1802. 51 p., 50 plates (part 
col.). 28Mx43cm. 

Pesel, Louisa F. English embroidery . . . 
London, B. T. Batsford [1931]. 2 v., illus., 
plates. 23x31)2 cm. 

Pesel, Louisa F. Practical canvas embroid- 
ery, a handbook with diagrams and scale 
drawings . . . London, B. T. Batsford 
[1929]. 21 p., 10 plates. 21 x 29 cm. 

12 



Pesel, Louisa F. Stitches from embroid- 
eries. 2d ed. London, Percy Lund, Hum- 
phries, n.d. v. 1, 3, col. pi. 25)5 cm. 

Recueil de planches sur les sciences, les arts 
liberaux, et les arts mechaniques, avec leur 
explication . . . Paris, Briasson, 1742-1752. 
11 v., plates. 40 cm. 
Embroidery, v. 2, 9. 

Saint-Aubin, Charles Germain. L'art du 
brodeur. Paris, 1770. 50 p., 10 pi. 40Ja 
cm. 

Saint-George, Amalie von. Die kunst der 
goldstickerei nebst einer anleitung zur ver- 
wandung der goldstickerei in verbindung 
mit application. Wien, Verlag der wiener 
mode [189-?]. 55 p., illus., plates. 32% 
cm. 

Schuette, Marte. Gestickte bildteppiche 
und decken des mittelalters . . . Leipzig, 
K. W. Hiersemann, 1927-1930. 2 v., dou- 
ble plates (part col.). 51 cm. 

Stiasny, Emtlie. Stickerei - techniken fur 
schule und praxis . . . Wien, K. K. Hof - 
und Staatsdruckerei, 1910. 148 p., illus. 
( part col. ) 34 cm. 

Townsend, W. G. Paulson. Embroidery; 
or the craft of the needle . . . London, 
Truslove, 1899. xv, 115 p., plates. 18K cm. 

NATIONAL AND SPECIAL 

Antrobus, Mrs. Mary (Symonds). Needle- 
work in religion; an introductory study of 
its inner meaning, history, and develop- 
ment . . . London, New York [etc.], Sir I. 
Pitman & sons, Ltd. [1924]. xxiii, 229 p., 
illus. (part col.), xxxv plates. 23/2 cm. 

Ardenne de Tizac, Jean Henri d\ Les 
etoffes de la Chine; tissus & broderies. 
Paris, Librairie des arts decoratifs, n.d. 54 
plates ( part col. ) 40 cm. 

Barcelona. Museo de arte decorativo y 
arqueologico. Catalogo de la seccion de 
tejidos, bordados y encajes . . . Barcelona 
[Ayuntamiento constitucional, museos ar- 
tisticos municipales] , 1906. xviii, 352 p., 
illus. 17/2 cm. 

Bolton, Mrs. Ethel (Stanwood). Amer- 
ican samplers . . . [Boston] The Massa- 
chusetts society of the colonial dames of 
America, 1921. viii, 416 p., front., illus., 
plates ( part col. ) . 25 cm. 

Broderies chinoises, Indiennes, toiles de 
Genes et de Jouy. Ire serie. Paris, Gueri- 
net, n.d. 32 plates ( part col. ) 39 cm. 

Broderies et decoration populaires tcheco- 
slovaques. Paris, H. Ernst [192-?]. [5] p., 
illus., 34 col. pi. 39 cm. 

Broderies & etoffes, Louis XVI, Empire, 
Restauration. Paris, Guerinet, n.d. 24 pi. 
23 cm. 

Broderies populaires espagnoles. Paris, E. 
Henri [1929]. 30 col. plates. 39 cm. 



Burlington Fine Arts Club, London. . . . 
Exhibition of English embroidery executed 
prior to the middle of die XVI century. 
London, printed for die Burlington fine 
arts club, 1905. 87 p., plates (part col.). 
42 cm. 

Christie, A. G. I. English medieval em- 
broidery; a brief survey of English em- 
broidery dating from the beginning of the 
10th century until die end of die 14th . . . 
Oxford, Clarendon press, 1938. 206 p., 
159 plates (part col.). 39cm. 

Cox, Raymond. Le musee historique des 
tissus; soieries & broderies Renaissance, 
Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Direc- 
toire, Premier empire. Paris, Guerinet, n.d. 
2 v. 200 plates. 31 cm. 

Davenport, Cyril James H. English em- 
broidered bookbindings . . . London, K. 
Paul, Trench, Trubner and company, Ltd., 
1899. xxxi, 113 p., front., plates. 22K cm. 

Dezso, Malonyay. A Magyar nep muves- 
zete... Budapest, Franklin-Tarsulat, 1907- 
1912. 4 v. illus., col. pi. 28 cm. 

Estrade, C. Broderies hindoues . . . Paris, 
Ernst Henri, n.d. 3 p., 38 col pi. 34 cm. 

Finley, Ruth E. Old patchwork quilts, and 
the women who made them . . . Philadel- 
phia, J. B. Lippincott [c.1929]. 202 p., 
illus. 23 cm. 

Fitzwilliam, Ada Wentworth. Jacobean 
embroidery, its forms and fillings including 
late Tudor. London, Kegan Paul, Trench, 
Trubner and co., 1912. 66 p., illus., 29 pi. 
( part col. ) 29 cm. 

Geijer, Agnes. Katalog over Uppsala Dom- 
kyrkas Skrudkammare upprattad av Agnes 
Branting vasentligt omarbetad och tillokad 
av Agnes Geijer. Uppsala, Alqvist & Wik- 
sels, 1932. 24 p., plates. 18K cm. 

Geijer, Agnes. Medeltida textiler av svensk 
tillverkning . . . Stockholm, Wahlstrom & 
Widstrands forlag, 1932. 14 p., plates. 21 
cm. 

Harbeson, Mrs. Georgiana (Brown). 
American needlework; the story of deco- 
rative stickery and embroidery from the 
late 16di to the 20th century . . . New 
York, Coward-McCann, Inc., 1938. xxxviii, 
232 p., col. front., plates (part col.), ports. 
32 cm. 

Hoffman, Huber & Co. Ulr[ich] de Gas- 
p[ard] Vonwiller-St. Gall, 1759-1892... 
Einsiedeln, Switzerland, Benziger & co., 
1893. 72 p., front., illus., plates (part 
col.). 21x28 cm. 

Ikle, Ernest. La broderie mechanique, 
1828 - 1930; souvenirs et documents . . . 
Paris, Chez l'auteur [etc., 1931]. 256 p., 
illus., plates (part col.). 33 cm. 

Jourdain, Margaret. The history of Eng- 
lish secular embroidery . . . London, K. 
Paul, Trench, Trubner and co., Ltd., 1912. 
xiv, 202 p., plates (part double). 22 cm. 



Kendrick, A. F. English embroidery. Lon- 
don, G. Newnes, Ltd.; New York, C. 
Scribner's sons [1905]. xii, 125 p., 60 
(i.e. 61) pi., 4 col. pi. (inc. front), 23 cm. 

Kulle, Jakob. Svenska monster for konst- 
vafnader och brodier. Stockholm, Kulle, 
1891-1900. 6 parts, col. illus. 21 cm. 

Lassen, Meta. fledebo embroidery. Brook- 
lyn, Brooklyn museum [1925]. unp., il- 
lus. 17 cm. 

Lescure, Alfred. Fonds de bonnets du 
XIXe siecle... Paris, E. Henri [1926]. 
54 plates. 39 cm. 

Marshall, Frances. Old English embroid- 
ery: its technique and symbolism . . . Lon- 
don, Horace Cox, 1894. 138 p., front., 
illus., plates. 27/2 cm. 

May, Florence Lewis. Catalogue of laces 
and embroideries in the collection of the 
Hispanic society of America . . . New 
York, printed by order of the trustees, 
1936. 147 p., plates. 188 cm. 

New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Chinese textiles; an introduction to the 
study of their history, sources, technique, 
symbolism, and use, by Alan Priest and 
Pauline Simmons. New York, 1934. x, 96 
p., illus., plates. 22 cm. 

New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Costumes from die Forbidden City, by 
Alan Priest . . . New York, Metropolitan 
museum of art, 1945. 16 p., 56 pi. on 
28 1. 25K x 20 cm. 

New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
. . . English domestic needlework of the 
XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries, by Pres- 
ton Remington . . . New York, 1945. 10 p., 
70 pi. on 351. 25Kcm. 

Peto, Mks. Florence, Historic quilts. New 
York. The American Historical company, 
inc., 1939. xix, 210 p., front., illus., plates. 
23K cm. 

Ricard, Prosper. Broderies. Alger, Bastide- 
Jourdon, 1918. 143 p., illus., plates. 45 
cm. (Arts Marocains.) 

South Kensington Museum, London. . . . 
A descriptive catalogue of a collection of 
tapestry-woven and embroidered Egyptian 
textiles in the Soudi Kensington Museum. 
London, printed by Eyre and Spottiswoode 
for H. M. Stationery Off., 1887. xvii, 70 p. 
23 cm. 

Stapley, Mildred. Popular weaving and 
embroidery in Spain . . . New York, Wil- 
liam Helburn [c.1924]. 60 p., front., pi. 
( part col. ) . 25K cm. 

Stassoff, W. L'ornement national russe, 
premiere livraison — broderies, tissus, den- 
telles . . . 1872. 45 p., 75 col. plates. 37 
cm. 

Trondheim. Nordenfjeldske kunstindus- 
tri Museum. Norwegische bauernsticker- 
ein. . . Leipzig, K. W. Hiersemann, 1926. 
50 plates. 43 cm. 

13 



Undi, Maria. Hungarian fancy needlework 
and weaving; the history of Hungarian 
decorative embroideries . . . Budapest, the 
author, n.d. 87 p., illus., plates (part col.). 
30 cm. 

Union Centrale Des Aets Decorattfs, 

Paris. Dessins de broderies, fin du XVIIIe 
siecle & ler empire . . . Paris, A. Calavas 
[193-?]. 48 plates. 41cm. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. Brief guide to the Chinese em- 
broideries. London, H. M. Stationery Off., 
1931. 12 p., 8 plates. 183$ cm. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. Brief guide to the Persian em- 
broideries. London, published under the 
authority of the Board of education, 1937. 
19 p., front., plates. 18 cm. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. Catalogue of Algerian embroid- 
eries. London, H. M. Stationery Off., 1915. 
14 p., front., plates. 24 cm. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. Catalogue of English ecclesiasti- 
cal embroideries of the XIII to XVI cen- 
turies. London, pub. under the authority 
of the Board of education, 1930. viii, 47 
p., front., plates. 243$ cm. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. A picture book of English em- 
broideries. Parts 1-3. London, published 
under the authority of the Board of edu- 
cation, 1933-34. 3 v., plates. 19 cm. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. A picture book of flowers in 
English embroidery. London, published 
under the authoritv of the Board of edu- 
cation [c.1932]. 20 plates. 19 cm. 

Wheeler, Mrs. Candace (Thurber). The 
development of embroidery in America. 
. . . New York and London, Harper & 
brothers, 1921. ix, 151 p., front., plates 
( part col. ) 24/2 cm. 

Zulueta, .Francis de. Embroideries by 
Mary Stuart & Elizabeth Talbot at Ox- 
burgh Hall, Norfolk . . . Oxford, Oxford 
university press, 1923. 16 p., plates. 33 



PATTERNS AND DESIGNS 

Androtjet du Cerceau, Paul. [Decoration 
par P. A. du Cerceau et D. Marot. Paris, 
Guerinet, n.d.] 26 plates. 29 cm. 

Anweisung zum sticken und illuminiren mit 
ausgemalten und schwarzen zeichnungen 
von bouquets . . . ein geschenk fur meine 
freundinnen. Halle, Dreyzig, n.d. 24 p., 
6 plates. 113$ x 21 cm. 

Antico lavoro fiorentino ( Punto d'Ungheria ) . 
Firenze, Casini, Ortolani & co., c.1925. 10 
col. plates. 243$ cm. 

14 



Battistelli, Chiara Cernetti. Guida pra- 
tica per l'insegnamento del punto di Assisi 
. . . Milano, Soc. editrice Unitas [cl925]. 
44 plates. 423$ cm. 

Ciotti, Giovanni Batttsta. Vorlagen fur 
nadelarbeiten von G. B. Ciotti, 1591. Ber- 
lin, Ernest Wasmuth, 1891. plates. 173$ x 
22 cm. 

Cocheris, Hippolyte. Patrons de broderie 
et de lingerie du XVIe siecle . . . Paris, 
Librairie de l'Echo de la Sorbonne, 1872. 
19 p., 100 plates. 20 cm. 

[Designs] [n.p., 1666?] plates. 163$ cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Album de broderies 
au point de croix. Mulhouse-Belfort-Paris, 
Dollfus-Mieg, n.d. 3v., plates. 40 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Alphabete fur die 
stickerin . . . Dornach (Elsass), Verlag 
von Th. de Dillmont, [19-?]. 92 plates. 
133* x 193* cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Alphabets et mo- 
nogrammes . . . [Mulhouse (Alsace), Doll- 
fus-Mieg, 189-?]. vii p., 60 plates. 23 x 
29 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. La broderie au 
passe . . . Dornach ( Alsace ) , Th. de Dill- 
mont [189-?] 6 p., 20 plates. 30)2 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Colbert embroid- 
ery . . . Mulhouse (France), [Dollfus- 
Mieg, n.d.] 13 col. plates. 20 x 29 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Cross stitch, new 
designs. (IVthser. ). Mulhouse ( France ) , 
Th. de Dillmont, [19-?]. plates. 193$ x 
29 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Motifs for embroid- 
eries (Illrd ser. ). Mulhouse (France), 
[Dollfus-Mieg, n.d.] 20 col. plates. 193$ x 
29 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Bicami jugoslavi, 
I ser. . . . Mulhouse (Francia), [Dollfus- 
Mieg, n.d.]. 20 col. plates. 20 x 29 cm. 

Dillmont, Therese de. Vorlagen fur stick- 
ereien ( lite serie ) . Miilhausen ( Elsass ) , 
Th. de Dillmont, n.d. 32 col. plates. 143a 
x 20 cm. 

Fiori di ricami nvovamente posti in lvce. 
Ne i quali sono varii, et diversi disegni di 
lavori ... In Siena, Appresso Mattei Flo- 
rimi, MDCIII. plates. 14 x 19 cm. 

Foresto, Iseppo. Musterbuch Venetianischer 
nadelarbeiten. 1558. Berlin, Ernst Was- 
muth, 1891. plates. 23 cm. 

Franceschi, Domenico de'. Serena, opera 
nova di recami . .". In Venetia, Appresso 
Domenico de' Franceschi . . . MDLXIII. 
[Venezia, F. Ongania, 1879] . unp. plates. 
18 x 28 cm. 

Guichard, Edouard. Les petits alphabets 
du brodeur; compositions originates . . . 
Paris, n.d. 39 plates. 31 x 463$ cm. 

Hoffmann, Wilhelm. Wilhelm Hoffmann's 
spitzen-musterbuch. . . Wien, Verlag des 
K. K. Oesterr. museums, 1876. 18 plates. 
243$ x 36 cm. 



Hoffmann, Wllhelm. Wilhelm Hoffmann's 
neues modelbuch, 1604. Berlin, Ernst 
Wasmuth, 1891. 17 plates. 23 x 35 cm. 

Les Langes du Dauphin de France: points 
coupes, [n.p., 1667?]. 110 plates. 30 cm. 
( Title page missing, binder's title. ) 

Lessing, Julius. Muster altdeutscher leinen- 
stickerei . . . Berlin, F. Lipperheide, 1882. 

Lipperheide, Frieda. Muster altitalienischer 
leinenstickerei . . . Berlin, F. Lipperheide, 
1881-83. 2 v., illus., plates. 30 cm. 

Die Modelwelt. Muster altdeutscher lein- 
enstickerei. Dritte sammlung . . . Berlin, 
F. Lipperheide, 1880. 32 p., 25 plates. 
30& cm. 

Neu-hervorkommendes weber kunst und 
bild buch . . . Culmbach, in verlegung 
Nathaniel Lumschers, 1720. plates. 18 x 
2VA cm. 

Nouveau manuel complet de la broderie 
atlas. Paris, Librairie Encyclopedique de 
Roret, n.d. 40 plates. 16 x 23 cm. 

Ostaus, Giovanni. La vera perfettione del 
disegno; di varie sorti di ricami . . . Ven- 
ice, Francesco di Franceschi, 1591. 80 
plates on 40 1. 14K x 22 cm. [Livres a 
dentelles & dessins d'omament reproduits 
et publies par Amand-Durand . . . 1883.] 

Ostaus, Giovanni. La vera perfezione del 
disegne per punti e recami; riproduzione 
della edizione di Venezia del 1561 . . . 
Bergamo, Instituto italiano d'arti grafiche, 
1909. 8 p., 81 plates. 16& x 23 cm. 

Pagan, Matthio. Lhonesto essempio del 
vertuoso desiderio che hanno le donne di 
nobil ingegno ... In Venetia per Matthio 
Pagan . . ., MDL. [Venezia, F. Ongania, 
1878]. plates. 26 cm. 

Paganlno, Aixesandro. Libro de rechami 
. . . 1527. [Venezia, F. Ongania, 1878]. 
4 v., plates. 26K cm. 

Parasole, Isabetta Catanea. Musterbuch 
fur stickereien und spitzen . . . 1616. Ber- 
lin, Ernest Wasmuth, 1891. plates. 23 x 
35 cm. 

Parasole, Isabetta Catanea. Pretiosa 
gemma delle virtuose donne . . . Venetia, 
Ad instanria Lucchino Gargano, MDC. 
[Venezia, F. Ongania, 1879]. plates. 2\% 
x 30 cm. 

Parasole, Isabetta Catanea. Teatro delle 
nobili et virtuose donne. In Roma, 1616. 
[Venezia, F. Ongania, 1891]. plates. 2V& 
x 30 cm. 

Pellegrin, Francisque. La fleur de la sci- 
ence de pourtraicture patrons de broderie, 
facon arabique et ytalique . . . 1530. 
Paris, Jean Schmidt, 1908. 8 p., 62 1., 
illus. 31/2 cm. 



Quentel, Peter. Musterbuch fur ornamente 
und stickmuster ... ( 1527-1529 ) . Leip- 
zig, E. Schloemp, [18-?]. 90 plates. 26 
cm. 

Sera, Domenico da. Le livre de lingerie... 
Paris, Hierosme de Marnef & la veuve de 
Guillaume Cavellat, 1584. 4 p., 50 plates. 
36 cm. [Livres a dentelles reproduits et 
publies par Amand-Durand . . . 1897.] 

Sllljan, Elsie H. The twentieth century 
pattern book for Norwegian lace and em- 
broidery. Kristiania, Norway, Grondahl & 
son, 1908. 18 p., illus. 24 cm. 

Toiletten - geschenk: ein jahrbuch fur 
damen. Leipzig, Georg Voss, 1805-1807. 
3 v., col. plates. 20 x 24 cm. 

Van Meerten, A. B. Penelope of Maand- 
werk aan bet vrouwelijk geslacht toege- 
wijd . . . Amsterdam, G. J. A. Beijerinck, 
1821-1826. 4 vol., col. plates. 23 cm. 

Vanntni, L. Lavoro assisiano . . . n.p., n.d. 
2 v. in 1. col. plates. 23 x 33 cm. 

Vanntni, L. II punto antico . . . n.p., n.d. 
illus., col. plates. 23% x 33% cm. 

Vanntni, L. II punto in croce artistico . . . 
n.p., n.d. col. plates. 23K x 33K cm. 

Vecellio, Cesare. Corona delle nobili, et 
virtuose donne . . . Venetia, Cesare Vecel- 
lio, 1592. 2 v., plates. 13 x 18 cm. 

Vecellio, Cesare. Corona delle nobili, et 
virtuose donne . . . Venetia, Cesare Vecel- 
lio, 1592-1608. 4 v. in 1. plates. 13 x 18 
cm. 

Vecellio, Cesare. Corona delle nobili, et 
virtuose donne, libro primo . . . Venetia, 
Cesare Vecellio, 1600. [Venezia, F. On- 
gania, 1879] . plates. 18 x 27K cm. 

Vecellio, Cesare. Corona delle nobili, et 
virtuose donne, libro quinto . . . Venetia, 
Cesare Vecellio, 1596. [Venezia, F. On- 
gania, 1891]. 10 plates. 30 cm. 

Vecellio, Cesare. Die krone der kunstfer- 
tigen frauen. . . 1691. Berlin, Ernst Was- 
muth, 1891. 4 parts in 1. plates. 14 x 19 
cm. 

Vinciolo, Federico. I singolari e nuovi di- 
segni per lavori di biancheria. Bergamo, 
Istituto Italiano d'art grafiche, 1909. 128 
p., illus. 22K cm. 

Wolf & Dupeyron. Le point de croix an- 
cien et moderne . . . Paris, Wolf & Du- 
peyron, n.d. plates. 31 x 42 cm. 

Zoppino. Esemplario di lavori doue le tenere 
fasciulle et altre donne nobile potranno 
facilmente imparare il modo et ordine di 
lauorare . . . [Venezia, F. Ongania, 1878] . 
47 plates. 28K cm. 

Richard E. Morse 



15 



The Museum is especially indebted to Miss Marian Hague, a member 
of its Advisory Council, for valuable advice in planning this exhibition, 
for consultation in the installation, and for the generous loan of many 
pieces from her own collection. In addition, grateful acknowledgment is 
made of loans received from the following individuals and organizations: 

The American Museum of Natural History 
Edward E. Berger, Inc. 

BRODY EMBROmERY Co. 

The Brooklyn Museum of Art 

Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Mrs. E. C. Pruyn Harrison 

James Hazen Hyde 

Leon Kalebdjian 

S. L. Klein, Inc. 

Costume Institute of The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Meyerson Brothers 

Museum of the City of New York 

Public Art Embroidery Co. 

Ren-Eta Gowns, Inc. 

Mrs. Ruth Jennings Terrill 

Dr. Carl Schuster 

Judge Irwin Untermyer 

Miss Carolyn Wicker 

F. Wilkes 



The Exhibition will be open weekdays, 10 to 5, until April 12, 1947. 

A Gallery Talk will be given each Wednesday, at 11 o'clock, and at 

other times by appointment. 



II 



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